A Heart Religion?

By Henry “Hal” Knight III

Friedrich Schleiermacher, the nineteenth century parent of liberal theology, argued that Christianity is most fundamentally not a believing or doing but a feeling — that is, an experience of God. Some have seen John Wesley as making a similar point. After all, was not Wesley a leader in a great, trans-Atlantic religious awakening in the eighteenth century in which the “religion of the heart” was a central theme?

Certainly, the answer must be yes. In his sermon “The Marks of the New Birth” Wesley warns that “true, living, Christian faith… is not only an assent, an act of the understanding, but a disposition which God hath wrought” in the heart (J. Wesley, “The Marks of the New Birth,” § 1.3, in A.C. Outler, ed., Sermons 1 [Abingdon, 1984] 418) through which one knows one’s sins are forgiven and which produces fruit such as power over sin, peace, hope, and most especially love. Wesley continually warns against faith as simply assent, and insists that Christianity essentially consists in a transformation of the heart.

Yet Wesley is saying something quite different from Schleiermacher. First, he understands Christian experience to be the result of an encounter with a God who is “other” than us, not the discovery of something already within us. (This point I will develop in a subsequent article.) Second, in emphasizing experience he is not de-emphasizing belief or practice. Rather, he is integrating all three to produce a dynamic and holistic vision of the Christian life.

Wesley, in K. Collins’ helpful terminology, is a pre-eminently conjunctive thinker (The Scripture Way of Salvation [Abingdon, 1997] 15). It is not simply that he holds together elements that others place in an either/or opposition; he sees how each element is necessary to the other. Much of the creative insight in Wesley’s theology is due to his integrative approach.

Contemporary theology has been concerned with the integration of orthodoxy (right belief) and orthopraxis (right practice). Indeed, praxis as a term appears frequently, and is often used to designate the kind of practice that shapes belief as well as being shaped by belief. We may learn much about God and the world through faithful Christian activity—worship, devotional life, and acts of love and justice in the world—as well as through the intellectual appropriation of doctrines.

As R.B. Steele has recently noted, a number of Wesleyans found this approach helpful but inadequate (“Heart Religion,” in The Methodist Tradition and Related Movements [Scarecrow, 2001] xxxiii). What was missing was a third element, orthopathy (right experience). Thus a truly Wesleyan theology would be marked by the mutual integration of three elements: orthodoxy, orthopathy, and orthopraxis. Or, to put it colloquially, by the integration of head, heart, and hands. My plan in subsequent articles is to show aspects of this integration. Here I will suggest how this three-way integration is helpful for living the Christian life.

One danger to the Christian life, which plagued Wesley’s own Church of England, was formalism. This could mean simply assenting to the teachings of Scripture or the church without it actually affecting one’s life. It could also mean a kind of legalism, externally obeying a checklist of things without a corresponding change of heart. The addition of orthopathy counters these inadequate forms of Christianity. For Wesley the Christian life is neither dead orthodoxy nor dutiful obedience, but a living, transformative relationship with God. We know God, not just know about God, and we acquire a new set of dispositions in the heart (orthopathy).

At the same time, the religious awakening had its own excesses. This enthusiasm, as it was called, emphasized having experiences or feelings. Some enthusiasts refrained from much of Christian practice so as not to rely on “works”; others would only act as they felt led. Wesley’s insistence on the authority of Scripture and participation in means of grace through corporate worship, devotional practices, and acts of mercy countered this enthusiasm. It did so by keeping persons grounded in God’s revelation through Scripture and tradition (orthodoxy) and active ministry in service to God and neighbor (orthopraxis).

Wesley used a number of paired terms to describe these various integrations: doctrine and discipline, heart and life, faith and works, knowledge and vital piety. Taken together, they describe a practical theology that aims to proclaim God’s promise of new life, encourage people to experience it, and enable them to faithfully live it out in love for God and their neighbor.

This article was originally posted as part of the Considering Wesley series on Nov. 01, 2002 at CatalystResources.org


Dr. Henry H. Knight III is Donald and Pearl Wright Professor of Wesleyan Studies at Saint Paul School of Theology. His books include From Aldersgate to Azusa Street: Wesleyan, Holiness, and Pentecostal Visions of the New Creation (Wipf and Stock, 2010) and A Future for Truth: Evangelical Theology in a Postmodern World (Abingdon, 1997).

Renewing Creation, Renewing the Church

Cross on a rocky hill backlit by the sun
Cross on a rocky hill backlit by the sun

By Henry “Hal” Knight III

In John Wesley’s sermon, “The General Spread of the Gospel,” he describes his vision of a Christian world. His depiction is not of a world in which everyone is a member of a church, much less one that has legislated Christian morality. It is instead a world in which “The loving knowledge of God, producing uniform, uninterrupted holiness and happiness, shall cover the earth, shall fill every soul of man” (§8). “Violence shall no more be heard in thy land,” and “the Lord God will cause righteousness and praise to spring forth before all the nation” (§26).

That it is God’s intention to renew creation in this way Wesley does not doubt. Yet he finds a considerable obstacle standing in the way of world evangelization, namely, the state of the church itself.

As he surveys the world, he sees both Christian and non-Christian to be strangers to true religion. While many in England would expect western Christians, especially Protestants, to be exemplars of their faith, Wesley is far from impressed. “Put Papists and Protestants, French and English together, the bulk of one and of the other nation; and what manner of Christians are they? Are they ‘holy, as he that hath called them is holy’? Is there ‘that mind in them which was also in Christ Jesus’? And do they ‘walk as Christ also walked’? Nay, they are as far from it as hell is from heaven” (§7).

Wesley believes God is presently working to renew the church as a prelude to an even greater global evangelization. As a prime example, Wesley cites his own movement. As this could be seen as a bit of triumphalism, it is important to note that Wesley continually informed his Methodists of other renewing movements of God around the world. But it is also true that the centerpiece of his theology, holiness of heart and life, made his movement distinct from much of the rest of the trans-Atlantic awakening with its focus on justification. In Wesley’s vision of renewal, it is holiness that makes the difference.

In fact, Wesley hoped this renewal in holiness was “the dawn of ‘the latter day glory’” (§16). His depiction of a renewed church is striking. With the coming of this “grand Pentecost” all will know God, have the law of God written in their hearts, and be filled with the Holy Spirit. Their life together will manifest the same practices of the church in Acts 2: “they will ‘continue steadfast in the apostles’ doctrine and in the fellowship, and in the breaking of bread, and in prayers.’” The “natural, necessary consequence” of a church renewed in holiness “will be the same as it was in the beginning of the Christian church.” No one will claim possessions as his or her own, “but they will have all things in common.” There will be no want, for people will sell their lands and houses and then distribute the proceeds to everyone according to their need. Their desires and tempers shall be holy, and all will do “the will of God on earth as it is in heaven,” and their conversation will be gracious to hearers.

Such a vision of a church renewed in holiness, with its faithful practice, abundant love for God, and sacrificial love for neighbor seems wildly utopian. Yet given Wesley’s profound confidence in the power of God and deep conviction that God’s mission is to transform our lives and communities so that we might manifest God’s love in the world, it is theologically realistic.

In Wesley’s mind this is the key to the credibility of the gospel to non-Christians. With the renewal of the church in holiness, and “The grand stumbling-block…thus happily removed out of the way, namely, the lives of the Christians” (§21), others will see us differently, and as a result listen to us with new ears. “The holy lives of the Christians will be an argument they will not know how to resist” (§22); it will be a kind of embodied apologetic for the gospel.

Even if one does not fully accept Wesley’s vision of a holy church, his central point is hard to deny: only a church that manifests love for God in its worship, love for one another within the community, and reaches out in love to others, will be able to share the good news of Jesus Christ with credibility and integrity. Indeed, in the end, a passion for evangelism necessarily rests on the renewal of the church.

This article was originally posted as part of the Considering Wesley series on Apr 01, 2002 at CatalystResources.org


Dr. Henry H. Knight III is Donald and Pearl Wright Professor of Wesleyan Studies at Saint Paul School of Theology. His books include From Aldersgate to Azusa Street: Wesleyan, Holiness, and Pentecostal Visions of the New Creation (Wipf and Stock, 2010) and A Future for Truth: Evangelical Theology in a Postmodern World (Abingdon, 1997).